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Applied Kinesiology (AK) is a system using basic muscle testing for evaluating areas of dysfunction within the body.

  • 1 What is the ICAK.

    The International College of Applied Kinesiology (ICAK) is a non profit interprofessional organisation dedicated to advance manual muscle testing as a system of diagnosis for evaluating areas of dysfunction within the body.
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  • 2 Annual Conference

    Come along and join us at the 2014 ICAK-U.S.A. Annual Meeting. Help us to celebrate AK's 50th Anniversary! June 19-22, 2014 Arlington, VA
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  • 3 What is Applied Kinesiology?

    AK uses the Triad of Health. That is Chemical, Mental and Structural factors that balance the major health categories. The Triad of Health is interactive and all sides must be evaluated for the underlying cause of a problem. A health problem on one side of the triad can affect the other sides.
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  • 4 Published Research Papers

    Several hundred studies have shown that musculoskeletal pain produces muscle weakness, the detection of which makes the manual muscle test invaluable in clinical practice.
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  • 5 AK practitioners are all around the world!

    AK practitioners are located around the globe. Find a practitioner near you.
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ICAK-USA Research

 

 

The Following is a Compilation of Applied Kinesiology Research Papers Published in the Collected Papers

of the International College of Applied Kinesiology for the year 1987 (Summer)

 

 

-- Edited by Scott Cuthbert, D.C.

 

 

 

ROCK MUSIC � AN ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSOR

 

Bryan Baughman, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present a pilot-study on the effects of rock-n-roll music upon the MMT.

 

Clinical Features: Nineteen patients were selected who tested negative to the following AK examination factors: MMT of the bilateral pectoralis major clavicular division muscle; the emotional neurovascular test; the GV-27 and CV-24 test for switching; the ocular lock test; and right and left brain dysfunction test developed in AK.

 

Intervention and Outcome: In a treatment room 7 patients were exposed to the sounds of a babbling brook, and 12 were exposed to a piece of rock-n-roll music called �Sweet Leaf� by the group Black Sabbath. The doctor went to another room and could not hear the two types of music were being played for the patients at the same volume for 2 minutes. The control group exposed to the sound of a babbling brook maintained their negative findings for the 5 tests. In the group exposed to the song by Black Sabbath, 10 of the 12 patients showed a weakening response to two or more of the tested factors.

 

Conclusion: In this selected group of patients, physical tests of muscle weakness and neurological disorganization appeared after exposure to rock-n-roll music. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Summer, 1987:51-57)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Acoustic Stimulation; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Muscle Weakness; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CATEGORY ONE AND LEG LENGTH CORRELATION

 

Daniel H. Duffy, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational cohort study on 500 subjects who showed AK indications of the category I pelvic problem.

 

Clinical Features: 500 patients were analyzed as having the category I pelvic problem according to AK diagnostic methods, including challenge and TL to the pelvis.

 

Intervention and Outcome: Sixty-eight of the 500 patients analyzed showed AK challenge for the category I pelvis to be contrary to the leg length findings. In those patients who reflected this finding, special care was undertaken to rule out operator error and neurological switching. Examination of the patients after category I correction involved first rib-head pain and symptom abatement. Checking the leg length in the prone position and using the pelvic blocks for the correction of the category I problem according to the observed leg length imbalance was in error approximately 14% of the time.

 

Conclusion: In terms of symptom response, in this study the use of the AK challenge method for determining treatment of the category I pelvis was found to be superior (instead of the traditional method of treating the problem according to leg length inequality). Further comparative studies of these two types of diagnosis of the common category I problem will be required. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Summer, 1987:142)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Pelvis; Muscle Weakness; Diagnosis; Cohort Studies; Manipulation, Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

UNIVERSAL MUSCLE STRENGTH AND COPPER DEFICIENCY

 

Michael Lebowitz, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present three case reports of patients in whom all muscles were hypertonic on MMT and whose muscles could not be sedated by any method, yet who responded to copper supplementation.

 

Clinical Features: Patient 1 was a 40-year-old male who suffered from extreme stiffness for 10 years, who had decreased ranges of motion in every direction tested. Patient 2 was a 36-year-old male who had been in constant pain for 13 months, with low back and left-sided sciatica. Patient 3 was a 69-year-old male who presented with an inability to rise from a seated position without locking of his hip and he would be unable to begin walking for 30-120 seconds.

 

Intervention and Outcome: On AK examination all patients showed universal muscle strength unresponsive to sedation techniques. In all 3 patients, putting a copper supplement in the mouth (Coppomin, Nutridyne) allowed muscles to sedate using spindle cell technique. All three patients, after a few days of copper supplementation, made a good recovery.

 

Conclusion: In this small patient sample, patients who showed all muscles hypertonic on MMT were responsive to copper supplementation who then showed positive MMT findings that led to the treatment that were corrected their conditions. Further research into these observations is necessary. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Summer, 1987:211-213)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Copper; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Treatment; Case Reports; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A PILOT STUDY INTO THE EFFECTS OF HOMOLATERAL AND CROSS CRAWL EXERCISES ON MUSCLE STRENGTH

 

K.H. Maitland, B.App.Sc. (Chiro)

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational cohort study of the effect of homolateral and cross crawl movements on MMT outcomes.

 

Clinical Features: At the School of Chiropractic -- Phillip Institute of Technology, in Melbourne, Australia, 18 subjects were recruited. Three chiropractors evaluated 6 subjects each after normal and abnormal gait movements (cross crawl or homolateral crawl).

 

Intervention and Outcome: After the subjects had performed 10 repetitions of the gait exercises the chiropractors began their testing. Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the subjects weakened after homolateral crawl movements. One hundred percent (100%) of the subjects (including the 89% who weakened after homolateral movements) strengthened after cross crawl movements. Eight different types of either cross crawl or homolateral crawl movements were tested, and showed an average of 45% of the subjects weakening after homolateral crawl, and an average of 69% of the subjects strengthening after cross crawl.

 

Conclusion: This pilot study shows that homolateral and cross crawl patterning have no statistically significant effect other than random effect. The authors offer suggestions on changes in the study design for reevaluation of this hypothesis. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Summer, 1987:235-246)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Gait; Muscle Weakness; Muscle Strength; Diagnosis; Cohort Studies; Therapeutics; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTER-PRACTITIONER RELIABILITY STUDY: AGREEMENT BETWEEN EXAMINERS ON MUSCLE STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS

 

K.H. Maitland, B.App.Sc. (Chiro), Miss M. Davids, Miss L. Ruggiero

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To test the inter-examiner reliability of the MMT.

 

Clinical Features: At the School of Chiropractic -- Phillip Institute of Technology, in Melbourne, Australia, forty subjects with limited knowledge of AK were tested by 5 chiropractors with between 1 and 8 years experience with MMT and AK.

 

Intervention and Outcome: Each subject was placed in separate rooms and each examiner tested 5 specified muscles on the right side of the subject. The muscles tested were the tensor fascia lata, pectoralis major sternal division, tibialis anterior, middle deltoid, and gluteus maximus. The examiners were blinded to the results of previous testing. The following agreement levels among all 5 examiners for each of the different muscles were reached: 78% agreement for the tensor fascia lata; 77% agreement for the pectoralis major sternal division; 85% agreement for the tibialis anterior; 75% agreement for the middle deltoid; and 80.5% agreement for the gluteus maximus muscle. The overall average inter-examiner reliability of the MMT for these muscles was 79.2%.

 

Conclusion: This was a follow-up study to the study conducted by Drs. Mario Sabella, Krawchuck and Decker (presented in this year�s ICAK Collected Papers also) and showed a comparable level of inter-practitioner reliability. This study demonstrates that a high level of reliability for the MMT exists even among doctors with less than 20 years of experience. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Summer, 1987:247-255)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Reproducibility of Results; Muscle Weakness; Muscle Strength; Diagnosis; Cohort Studies; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied.

 

 

 

 

 

HEAL HELPER UPDATE

 

William Maykel, D.C., John B. Manning, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational cohort study to determine the maximum permissible heel elevation before ensuing muscle weakness occurs.

 

Clinical Features: In an attempt to discover when massive muscle weakness occurs after lifting the heel with a wedge, a random sampling of 83 patients with various physical problems ranging in age from 11 to 65 were tested with a Heal Helper wedge that elevated the calcaneus bone.

 

Intervention and Outcome: Regardless of age, sex, or health problem, a definite range of heel elevation was found that created muscle weakness on MMT. That range was found to be between 1.5 inches to 3.25 inches, with a mean average of 2.42 inches.

 

Conclusion: This measurement may be useful for patient management (especially in the prescription of orthotic devices) because it provides a reference range to work with. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Summer, 1987:257-260)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Orthotic Devices; Heel; Muscle Weakness; Diagnosis; Cohort Studies; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STUDY OF THE OPPONENS-CERVICAL RELATIONSHIP

 

Donald A. McDowall, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational cohort study on 100 patients who presented to a chiropractic clinic over 1-week who had weakness of the opponens muscle, and to determine the vertebral level involvement with this finding.

 

Clinical Features: A group of 100 patients were selected who showed a bilateral weakness of the opponens muscles of the hands. Only one case of carpal tunnel syndrome was present in this patient sample.

 

Intervention and Outcome: Each of these patients had strengthening of these muscles bilaterally with TL to the C2 segment. Therapy localization was also applied to the wrist, elbow, sacrum, and cervical C1-C2 area with movement. After challenge of the C2 vertebra it was found that 44 of the patients had a posterior C2 vertebral dysfunction, 42 of the patients had a spinous process left vertebral dysfunction, and 14 of the patients had a spinous process right vertebral dysfunction.

 

Conclusion: This study suggests that the C2 vertebra is critical for the opponens muscle function and that involvement of other neuropathies is negligible. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Summer, 1987:275-276)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome; Spinal Injuries; Muscle Weakness; Diagnosis; Cohort Studies; Therapeutics; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN INTER-EXAMINER RELIABILITY STUDY OF MANUAL MUSCLE TESTING

 

Mario A. Sabella, D.C., Barry Decker, B. App. Sc, Terry Krawchuk, B. App. Sc., Dean Lines, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present a blinded study to assess the inter-examiner reliability of the MMT.

 

Clinical Features: Five examiners (3 experienced and 2 less experienced in MMT) tested 5 muscles in 27 (17 male, 10 female) students at the Phillip Institute of Technology Chiropractic and Physical Education schools. The students had minimal or no exposure to MMT, and their ages ranged from 17 to 50 years. The muscles tested were the tensor fascia lata, pectoralis major sternal division, tibialis anterior, middle deltoid, and gluteus maximus.

 

Intervention and Outcome: The results of the MMT in this sample, when subjected to an inferential test (Cochran�s Q test), were shown to be extremely significant at the 0.001 level. The Cochran Q test was used because it generalizes the results of the sample in this study to the total population.

 

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the reliability of the MMT between different examiners, when subjected to an inferential test (Cochran�s Q test) is extremely significant, with excellent reliability. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Summer, 1987:311-325)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Reproducibility of Results; Muscle Weakness; Muscle Strength; Diagnosis; Cohort Studies; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied.

 

 

 

APPLIED KINESIOLOGY AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE

 

Robert M. Blaich, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational and interventional cohort study to assess how the correction of neurological disorganization affects the reading speed.

 

Clinical Features: One-hundred and thirty-seven participants at 6 post-graduate chiropractic seminars were tested for their reading speed, in words per minute.

 

Intervention and Outcome: Each participant was treated to eliminate neurological disorganization (ND), using an AK procedure (cranial fault correction). Psychological reversal techniques were then diagnosed and treated. The participants were pushed to read beyond their comfort zone after this stage, and ND was again examined for and treated if found. The added demands of the increased performance created ND in many of the participants, and its treatment after this challenge improved their reading further. The average reading rate of 137 participants after this series of AK treatments increased approximately 250% the original rate.

 

Conclusion: Without a course in speed-reading 137 people increased their reading rate 250% during a weekend seminar involving AK techniques to treat ND. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:7-25)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Reading; Task Performance and Analysis; Cohort Studies; Treatment; Diagnosis; Manipulation, Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

INCIDENCE OF VARIOUS FAULTS IN A POPULATION OF ELITE BICYCLISTS

 

Robert M. Blaich, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational and interventional cohort study of world class or Olympic bicyclists to assess the incidence of various problems identified in AK practice.

 

Clinical Features: Eighty-two world class or Olympic bicyclists were examined, frequently during extended stage races or while training for major races. Information is tabulated from over 300 patient visits. Due to the diversity of symptoms and conditions of these elite athletes, no specific protocol was followed for examination and treatment. The athletes were treated for clinical effectiveness, not research purposes.

 

Intervention and Outcome: The following findings among the 82 athletes were found: category II pelvic fault (58); cranial fault (43); cervical subluxation (43); psoas weakness, one or both (43); category I (40); thoracic subluxation (33); sartorius muscle weakness, adrenal related muscle (33); lumbar subluxation (28); occiput fixation (24); upper cervical fixation (22); repeated muscle test weakness (19); pectoralis major sternal division weakness, liver related (14); lower thoracic fixation (13); retrograde lymphatic (12); quadriceps weakness (12); homolateral crawl strength (9); infraspinatus weakness, thymus gland related (9); hiatal hernia (8); tensor fascia lata weakness, cuboid subluxation related (6); Pitch (5); Roll (5), cervical-dorsal fixation (4); Yaw (3).

 

Conclusion: The category II pelvic fault is the most common single fault in this survey. The high incidence of sartorius muscle weakness, related to the adrenal gland, may be related to this. The high incidence of structural faults in this population is thought to be due to the rigors of training and the crashes that occur in this sport. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:27-30)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Athletic Injuries; Incidence; Cohort Studies; Muscle Weakness; Diagnosis; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN ATTEMPT TO QUANTIFY MUSCLE TESTING USING MERIDIAN THERAPY/ACUPUNCTURE TECHNIQUES

 

John M. Corneal, D.C., Randy Dick, M.S.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational study on the relationship between acupuncture meridian sedation and muscle force using electromyographic measurements.

 

Clinical Features: In AK, a clinical relationship has been suggested between the muscles of the body and the meridian system in traditional Chinese medicine. The stomach meridian is associated in AK with the biceps brachaii and brachioradialis muscles. Four subjects with no history of arm problems, with a mean age of 31 years, and who were right-handed were tested for maximal isometric elbow flexion on the right with an isometric test apparatus secured to a table. The tests were made before and after sedation therapy for the stomach meridian. Force produced, biceps EMG, and triceps EMG were recorded for each subject. The elbow flexion was tested in the standardized MMT position for the biceps muscle.

 

Intervention and Outcome: An acu-Aid was taped to stomach meridian�s sedation point (S-45) on the second toe, and then isometric testing was performed. After a five-minute rest period, a placebo (tape) was applied to the same location (subjects were unable to distinguish between these two conditions), and isometric testing was again performed. Subjects averaged 5.3% less force produced with the acu-Aid applied than with the placebo. The acu-Aid appeared to have no effect on EMG measurement.

 

Conclusion: Sedation of the stomach meridian produced a significant reduction in bicep force production as measured in an isometric elbow flexion test. Bicep EMG demonstrated no relationship to the stomach meridian sedation. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:59-78)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Acupuncture Therapy; Acupuncture Points; Muscle Weakness; Cohort Studies; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

FISH FILLETERS SYNDROME

 

Hannes L. Hendrickson BChE, P.E., D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present the case of a fish filleter who suffered from right shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain successfully managed with AK procedures.

 

Clinical Features: A 27-year-old male who had been a fish cutter for 10 years presented with shoulder, elbow and wrist pain.�

 

Intervention and Outcome: MMT examination found the latissimus dorsi, deltoid, and supraspinatus muscles inhibited. Manipulative correction of the head of the humerus, the proximal head of the radius, and lunate and navicular bones in the wrist corrected the weaknesses of the muscles of the shoulder and restored normal function to the arm and wrist.

 

Conclusion: Correction of shoulder, elbow, and arm dysfunction rapidly improved this patient�s arm pain. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:123-129)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Shoulder Pain; Carpal Tunnel Syndrome; Muscle Weakness; Diagnosis; Treatment; Case Reports; Manipulation, Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

THE FREQUENCY OF THREE COMMON CRANIAL FAULTS

 

James D.W. Hogg, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational cohort study to assess the frequency of three cranial faults in a convenience sample.

 

Clinical Features: The cohort group�s inclusion criteria for this study were that the subjects exhibited any of the respiratory, cruciate or sagittal suture cranial faults. The AK method of diagnosis for these problems was used. Two-hundred and sixty-five patients were evaluated.

 

Intervention and Outcome: The following statistics express the positive cranial findings found in 265 patients: 262 (99%) inspiratory assist; 17 (6%) cruciate suture TL; 128 (48%) cruciate suture challenge; 24 (24%) sagittal suture fault showing before cruciate suture correction; 46 (46%) sagittal suture cranial fault showing only after cruciate suture correction. Additional statistical observations were made: 49% of the patients showed a cruciate suture fault, and 18% a sagittal suture fault, when an inspiratory assist fault was present. The sagittal suture cranial fault was present 55% of the time when the cruciate suture fault was present. The sagittal suture cranial fault was present 66% of the time only after the cruciate suture fault was corrected. The cruciate suture cranial fault was also present 100% of the time after direct challenge.

 

Conclusion: Statistically in this cohort study, the cruciate suture cranial fault should be examined by challenge, after which several other cranial faults will be diagnosed. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:141-144)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Cranial Sutures; Cohort Studies; Manipulation, Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE ZINC TALLY TEST, GAMMA-2 MUSCLE TESTING, KININ MEDIATED ALLERGIES, AND PRE-TEST IMAGING

 

Michael Lebowitz, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational cohort study to assess the correlation between the zinc tally test and gamma-2 MMT for zinc levels. The relationship between pre-test imaging, kinin mediated allergies, and zinc levels were also described.

 

Clinical Features: One hundred patients were selected who demonstrated the so-called gamma-2 MMT finding (patient-initiated MMT). These patients were given the zinc tally test; then tested with the diagnostic procedure called pre-test imaging; cholecystokinin (CCK) was orally insalivated to see if it caused universal muscle weakness; finally a zinc solution was given to the patients and the gamma-2 MMT finding was retested. The most common cause of kinin-mediated allergies is hypothesized to be a zinc deficiency.

 

Intervention and Outcome: On the zinc tally, grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 levels were found in 16, 63, 17, and 4 of the patients. Of the grade 1 (most severely deficient in zinc) patients, all 16 (100%) showed strengthening of the gamma-2 test with insalivation of a zinc mixture, and 6 (37.5%) of these patients showed weakening on insalivation of CCK. Of the grade 2 patients, 26 (41%) showed strengthening with insalivation of zinc, and 12 (19%) showed weakening on insalivation of CCK. Patients with grades 3 and 4 on the zinc tally showed no response to oral zinc on gamma-2 testing, nor did they show response to CCK. Of the 100 patients screened, 43 showed positive pre-test imaging, with the greatest percentages found with patients who had a grade 1 and 2 zinc tallies. In the pre-test imaging procedure, it is hypothesized that if a weak muscle becomes strong after the patient imagines performing the test, this indicates the patient has one or more cranial faults.

 

Conclusion: From these statistics it appears that if zinc levels are adequate on the zinc tally test, a kinin-mediated allergy will not develop and that the number of cranial faults diagnosed with pre-test imaging is reduced. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:145-151)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Zinc; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Nutritional Status; Diagnosis; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

A COMPARISON BETWEEN KOENIGSBURG�S TEST FOR URINARY CHLORIDES, SULKOWITCH TEST FOR URINARY CALCIUM EXCRETION, AND GAMMA-2 MUSCLE TESTING

 

Michael Lebowitz, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational cohort study to assess the correlations between the Koenigsburg and Sulkowitch tests and AK MMT findings.

 

Clinical Features: The Koenigsburg and Sulkowitch urinary tests were performed on 50 patients. The Sulkowitch test for urinary calcium excretion was tested on the 50 patients, and given grades 1-4, with 1 showing no calcium in the urine (�deficient in calcium�), and 4 showing adequate calcium in the urine. The Koenigsburg test for urinary chlorides is a screening test for adrenal function, with values less than 17 showing hyperadrenia, greater than 25 showing hypoadrenia, and greater than 50 or less than 17 showing the exhaustion stage of adrenal function.

 

Intervention and Outcome: For the Sulkowitch test, 22 patients showed grade 1 and 7 showed grade 2 (calcium deficiency indicated). In all 29 patients, insalivation of calcium produced a strengthening of a weak gamma-2 MMT (patient-initiated MMT). Twenty-one patients showed grades 3 and 4, and only 1 patient showed strengthening after insalivation of calcium. For the Koenigsburg test, 29 patients showed hypoadrenia on the test and TL to the neurolymphatic reflex for the adrenal produced a strengthening of a weak-gamma-2 MMT. For 14 patients who had normal Koenigsburg test results, only 2 of 14 patients showed strengthening with TL to the NL for the adrenal glands. For 7 patients with hyperadrenia, 2 patients showed strengthening with TL to the NL for the adrenal glands.

 

Conclusion: Overall agreement between gamma-2 MMT and the Sulkowitch and Koenigsburg tests was 96.8% and indicates the accuracy of this technique. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:167-171)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Adrenal Cortex Function Tests; Calcium Metabolism Disorders; Cohort Studies; Diagnosis; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIOTYPES AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID REQUIREMENTS

 

Philip B. Maffetone, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational cohort study showing the relationship between biotypes and essential fatty acid (EFA) needs in patients.

 

Clinical Features: Two body types were included in this study, the endomorph (heavy physique, typical of the Eskimo), and the ectomorph (tall and slender body type). Forty-one patient files were reviewed which met the following criteria, 1) the patient was either a dominant ectomorph or a dominant endomorph, based on anatomical features, and 2) the patient also showed a need for EFA supplementation using AK evaluation methods.

 

Intervention and Outcome: Of the 41 patients, 19 were endomorphs, and 17 required omega-3 EFA (fish or linseed oil) supplementation, and 2 required omega-6 EFA (currant seed or primrose oil). Of the 41 patients, 22 were ectomorphs, and 4 required omega-3 EFA, and 18 required omega-6 EFA.

 

Conclusion: In this observational cohort study, the endomorphic body type predominantly required omega-3 EFAs, and the ectomorphic body type predominantly required the omega-6 EFAs. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:173-177)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Somatotypes; Fatty Acids, Essential; Fatty Acids, Omega 3; Fatty Acids, Omega-6; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Cohort Studies; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

�THE SLEEPING TMJ�

 

Gerald J. Polino, D.C.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present a case report of a patient with TMJ dysfunction successfully treated with AK therapies.

 

Clinical Features: A 26-year-old female presents with a primary complaint of awakening with debilitating temporal headaches along with cervical tension and stiffness. The patient had been treated 6 times with the usual AK procedures, with only limited results. The patient was referred to a dental TMJ specialist who observed considerable dental deterioration due to bruxism and she was fitted with a M.O.R.A. splint. This reduced the intensity of her symptoms, however, only by 40% in the patient�s estimation. On subsequent visits, the TMJ and cranium were tested as problem free despite the continuing symptoms.

 

Intervention and Outcome: On a subsequent visit the patient was examined in the usual fashion and found to be problem free. However, when she was tested in the normal manner with her eyes closed, several TMJ problems were found and corrected. Two visits later the patient was asymptomatic, and her dentist withdrew the appliance. She was no longer bruxing at night, and her energy level was much improved.

 

Conclusion: In this difficult TMJ case involving nighttime bruxism, the use of AK diagnostic methods while the patient had her eyes closed during the testing allowed for the treatment that resulted in her recovery. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:195-198)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Temporomandibular Joint; Headache; Stomatognathic System; Diagnosis; Treatment; Case Reports; Manipulation, Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN INVESTIGATION OF APPLIED KINESIOLOGY�S MANUAL MUSCLE TESTING BY THREE DIMENSIONAL COMPUTERIZED FORCE-PLATE ANALYSIS

 

Dean Raffelock, D.C., DIBAK

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present an observational cohort study of tennis players with a history of knee injury and ongoing pain, and to assess with a computerized force plate the effects of AK neuromuscular spindle (NMS) cell treatment.

 

Clinical Features: Five tennis players with knee pain were selected who respectively showed MMT weakness of a lower extremity muscle. Using the computerized force plate pre-treatment, the instrument measured the vertical force during the MMT of the patient (the examiner�s force lifting off the plate), the lateral force (the examiner�s force moving laterally), and the anterior to posterior force (the examiner�s force moving in anterior or posterior direction).

 

Intervention and Outcome: After treatment to dysfunctional NMS cells found in these muscles by AK methods, there was a significant increase in the force of the examiner vertically lifting off of the force plate during the MMT. After treatment of the same NMS cell to make the muscle weaker, there was also a consistent and substantial weakening of the forces involved in the MMT.

 

Conclusion: This study seems to indicate that after AK treatment to NMS cells of inhibited muscles during the MMT, that the muscle�s ability to lift the examiner vertically off the force plate increased after the NMS procedure. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:213-230)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Tennis; Athletic Injuries; Muscle Strength Dynamometer; Muscle Weakness; Cohort Studies; Treatment; Diagnosis; Manipulation, Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MAKING B-6 WORK: ACTIVATING PYRIDOXINE TO PYRIDOXAL-5-PHOSPHATE

 

Walter H. Schmitt, Jr., D.C., DIBAK

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present 2 cases with diverse symptoms that successfully responded to AK therapy when the activated for of vitamin B-6 was supplemented.

 

Clinical Features: B-6 functions in the body in an activated form as pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P), and the activation of B-6 to P-5-P depends on magnesium, zinc, riboflavin, and phosphorus. One of vitamin B-6�s functions is the processing of ammonia molecules, and this function may be assessed by having the patient sniff a source of unscented ammonia. In the first patient, six months after beginning oral contraceptives, a woman began to suffer from low back pain, water retention, and depression. The second patient, a 50-year-old man with a mild, but chronic L-5/S-1 disc protrusion, responds only temporarily to treatment, but remains symptomatic.

 

Intervention and Outcome: In the first patient a weak muscle was strengthened with insalivation of P-5-P. The patient also shows generalized weakening of all her muscles when she sniffs ammonia, and this is neutralized by P-5-P. The patient also has strengthening of a weak muscle with insalivation of riboflavin and magnesium. The patient took these supplements until her next visit. On her next office visit, she was improved in all symptoms. The second patient also shows generalized muscle weakness when he sniffs ammonia, which is corrected with insalivation of P-5-P. A weak psoas muscle strengthens with insalivation of zinc and riboflavin (necessary to convert B-6 to its activated form). In one week the patient begins to make continued progress.

 

Conclusion: In these two cases, vitamin B-6 deficiencies were thought to be contributing to their symptoms. The use of nutrients to activate B-6 in the body helped stabilize these patients� AK corrections. The ammonia sniff test helped diagnose the nutrients required in these two cases. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:249-258)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Vitamin B 6 Deficiency; Pyridoxal Phosphate; Diagnosis; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Muscle Weakness; Case Reports; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPLIED KINESIOLOGY AND NUTRITIONAL TESTING

 

David S. Walther, D.C., DIBAK

 

ABSTRACT

 

Objective: To present the method of testing nutrition generally accepted by members of the ICAK and supported by the organization.

 

Clinical Features: Observing the change in muscle function after a patient chews or sucks on nutrition is a frequently used method of nutritional testing in AK. The ICAK has taken the stand that evaluating nutritional needs by testing muscle function should only be done when the patient stimulates the gustatory receptors with the substance being tested.

 

Intervention and Outcome: This paper emphasizes the reasons individual patient consideration should be done, and that the method must be correlated with other means of nutritional need diagnosis. The effects on the body from gustatory stimulation are discussed, as well as some of the neurologic pathways of the gustatory system.

 

Conclusion: More basic research, properly designed, is needed to further understand the mechanisms at work in AK nutritional testing. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter, 1987:295-388)

 

Key Indexing Terms: Nutrition Assessment; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Muscle Weakness; Kinesiology, Applied

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